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Neuropsychiatric Assessment
Eknoyan D, Hurley RA, Taber K. The Clock Drawing Task: Common Errors and Functional Neuroanatomy J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci  2012; 24: 260-265
This is an excellent article on common errors and what they mean using the clock drawing test which is the most useful part of the neuropsychiatric assessment in my opinion
Neuropsychiatric Disorders

Boyer EW, Shannon M. The serotonin syndrome. N Engl J Med 2005; 352:1112-1120
Burns A, Jacoby R, Levy R. Psychiatric phenomena in Alzheimer’s disease.IV: Disorders of behavior . Br J Psychiatry 1990; 157:86-94
Butler C, Zeman AZJ. Neurological syndromes which can be mistaken for psychiatric conditions . J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2005; 76:i31-i38

Chouinard G, Jones BD. Neuroleptic-induced supersensitivity psychosis: clinical and pharmacologic characteristics . Am J Psychiatry 1980; 137:16-21

Fink M, Taylor MA. The catatonia syndrome: forgotten but not gone . Arch Gen Psychiatry 2009; 66:1173-1177

Geschwind MD, Haman A, Miller BL. Rapidly progressive dementia . Neurol Clin 2007; 25:783-807

Goldberg E. Akinesia, tardive dysmentia, and frontal lobe disorder in schizophrenia . Schizophr Bull 1985; 11:255-263
Howard RJ, Juszszak E, Ballard CG et al. Donepezil for the treatment of agitation in Alzheimer’s Disease. N Engl J Med 2007; 357: 1382-1392
Howard RJ, McShane R, Lindesay J et al. Donepezil and memantine for moderate-to-severe Alzheimer’s Disease. N Engl J Med 2012; 366:893-903
Inouye SK. Delirium in older persons. N Engl J Med 2006; 354:1157-1165
Kayser MS, Kohler CG, Dalmau J. Psychiatric manifestations of paraneoplastic disorders. Am J Psychiatry 2010; 167:1039-1050
McKeith IG, Dickson DW, Lowe J et al. Diagnosis and management of dementia with Lewy bodies . Neurology 2005; 12:1863-1872
Rascovsky K, Hodges JR, Knopman D et al. Sensitivity of revised criteria for the behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia . Brain 2011; 134: 2456-2477

Saczynski JS, Marcanonio ER, Quach L, Fong TG, Gross A, Inouye SK, Jones RN. Cognitive trajectories after postoperative delirium . N Engl J Med 2012; 367:30-39

Stone J, Carson A, Sharpe M. Functional symptoms and signs in neurology: assessment and diagnosis . J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2005; 76(Suppl I): i2-i12
Stone J, Carson A, Sharpe M. Functional symptoms and signs in neurology: management . J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2005; 76(Suppl I): i13-21
Strawn JR, Keck Jr PE, Caroff SN. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Am J Psychiatry 2007; 164:870-876
Schneider LS, Tariot PN, Dagerman KS et al. Effectiveness of atypical antipsychotic drugs in patients with Alzheimer’s disease . N Engl J Med 2006; 355:1528-1538
Neurobiology of mental disorders

Blair RJR. Neurobiological basis of psychopathy . Br J Psychiatry 2003; 182:5-7

Dalgleish T. The emotional brain. Nat Rev Neurosci 2004; 5:583-589

Everitt BJ, Robbins TW. Neural systems of reinforcement for drug addiction: from actions to habits to compulsion . Nat Rev Neurosci 2005; 8:1481-1489

Fletcher PC, Frith CD. Perceiving is believing: a Bayesian approach to explaining the positive symptoms of schizophrenia . Nat Rev Neurosci 2009; 10:48-58

Heim C, Nemeroff CB. The role of childhood trauma in the neurobiology of mood and anxiety disorders: preclinical and clinical studies. Biol Psychiatry 2001; 49:1023-1039

Howes OD, Kapur S. The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia: version III – the final common pathway. Schizophr Bull 2009; 35:549-562

Kalivas PW, Volkow ND. The neural basis of addiction: a pathology of motivation and choice. Am J Psychiatry 2005; 162:1403-1413

Krishnan V, Nestler EJ. The molecular neurobiology of depression . Nature 2008; 455:894-902

LeDoux JE. Emotion circuits in the brain. Ann Rev Neurosci 2000; 23:155-184

Kapur S. Psychosis as a state of aberrant salience: a framework linking biology, phenomenology, and pharmacology in schizophrenia . Am J Psychiatry 2003; 160:13-23
Summary from my annual lecture to PGY-1 Psychiatry Residents

Recommended Textbooks

David AS, Fleminger S, Kopelman M, Loveston S, Mellers J. Lishman's Organic Psychiatry. London: Wiley, 2009

Moore DP, Puri BK. Textbook of Clinical Neuropsychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience 3rd ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2012

Arciniegas DB, Anderson CA, Filley CM.  (Eds.) Behavioral Neurology & Neuropsychiatry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013

Clinical Neuropsychology

Parsons MW, Hammeke TE. (Eds.) Clinical Neuropsychology: A Pocket Handbook for Assessment 3rd Ed. Washington D.C.: American Psychological Association, 2014

Schoenberg MR, Scott JG. (Eds.) The Little Black Book of Neuropsychology: A Syndrome Based Approach. New York: Springer, 2011.

Lezak MD, Howieson DB, Bigler ED, Tranel D. Neuropsychological Assessment. 5th Ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012

Mental and Cognitive State Examination

Hodges JR. Cognitive Assessment for Clinicians.  2nd ed Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007

Strub RL, Black WF. The Mental Status Examination in Neurology 4th ed. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company, 2000
Shows how to administer the Frontal Assessment Battery which assesses executive function, abstraction, phonenmic verbal fluency, environmental autonomy, and inhibitory control. Useful for distinguishing FTD from Alzheimer's in the early stages.
Shows how to elicit the palmomental reflex, a primitive reflex seen in neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disease.